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Surfactant Guide.
(Word 6 - Zipped)


Surfactant Terms
Biodegradability
Selecting a surfactant
HLB Values
Non-ionic Surfactants
Tigercol Lubricants
Cationic Surfactants
Anionic Surfactants
Hydrotropes
Typical Uses for Surfactants
Formulary


SURFACTANT TERMS

SURFACTANT The term is derived from SURFace ACTive AgeNT. A surfactant is a compound that contains a Hydrophilic and a Hydrophobic segment. When added to water or solvents, a surfactant reduces the surface tension of the systems for of the following purposes: wetting, emulsifying, dispersing, foaming, scouring or lubricity. The surface tension of water may be demonstrated by "overfilling" a glass with water by adding drops of water to an already full glass. The addition of a small amount of surfactant makes this effect impossible.

HLB An Arbitrary scale from 0 to 40 depicting the Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Balance of a surfactant. products with low HLB are more oil soluble. High HLB represents good water solubility. Note that HLB is a numerically calculated number based on the surfactants molecular structure. It is not a measured parameter.

Moles of Ethylene Oxide The Ethylene Oxide (EO) chain is the hydrophilic portion of the Surfactant molecule. The larger this portion of the molecule, the more water soluble is the non-ionic surfactant. Ethylene oxide is the reactive chemical added to base alcohols and amines to form ethoxylated non-ionic surfactants.

Base Alcohol (Hydrophobic) Ethylene Oxide chain (Hydrophilic)
This surfactant contains n moles of Ethylene Oxide. Where surfactants are used to emulsify oils the Hydrophobic part of the surfactant embeds itself in the oil droplet and the Hydrophilic Ethylene oxide chain interacts with water to surround the oil droplet and form an emulsion.

BIODEGRADABILITY



Biodegradability refers to the bacterial decomposition of a chemical. For surfactants it takes place in two steps.

1. Primary biodegradation            Loss of surfactant properties E.G. foaming
2. Ultimate Biodegradation          Complete degradation of the compound to carbon dioxide and water.


The actual mechanism of biodegradation of a surfactant is still not known exactly but in broad terms it occurs in the following way for a non-ionic surfactant:

Initially methyl group oxidation converts a terminal methyl group (CH3) to a carboxyl group (COOH). The next step is beta group oxidation which is a similar mechanism to the way carnivorous animals metabolise fat, and occurs to a terminal carboxylate group. Therefore, methyl group oxidation is a prerequisite to beta group oxidation.

Aromatic ring oxidation, like methyl group oxidation, is a slow process that involves an oxidative cleavage of the ring structure. This is followed by rearrangement and hydration to give an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid. This structure may then be further degraded by the beta oxidation process.

It is not entirely true to say that an alkyl phenol ethoxylate will biodegrade more slowly than an alcohol ethoxylate. The time taken to ultimate biodegradation may be relatively similar. The reason that alkyl phenol ethoxylates are classed as hard is due to the test method employed. Ultimate biodegradation is not measured, instead it is the time taken to lose surfactant properties that is measured. Alcohol ethoxylates are attacked by bacteria from both ends and at the middle where the hydrophobe is joined to the lipophobe. Alkyl phenol ethoxylates are only degraded from either end and thus do not lose surfactant properties almost until the molecule is ultimately biodegraded.

The main factors affecting the biodegradation are the physical size of the molecule and degree of branching. From the above it is possible to predict which molecule types will biodegrade readily and those which will be slower.


Branched chain alkyl phenol ethoxylate      HARD
Branched chain fatty alcohol ethoxylate
Linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate
Fatty acid alkanolamides
Fatty acids                                                SOFT


Where biodegradation is important such as in laundry products or cleaning products that are discharged into the sewage system, products based on linear alcohols are used. TIGERFAX LAE series products are based on linear alcohols.



 

SELECTING A SURFACTANT

  Choosing the correct surfactant to have a particular effect is not difficult. The properties required for a particular application can be formulated into a product using the following as a guide:

ETHYLENE OXIDE CONTENT

The function a surfactant performs is related to the hydrophilic portion of the molecule. The greater the ethylene oxide content, the more water loving is the surfactant. Generally, the number following the surfactant's name is an indication of the ethylene oxide content. For example. TIGERFAX NPE9 contains nine moles of ethylene oxide.

MOLES OF E.O FUNCTION

1-3         Emulsify small amounts of water in oil as the major portion.
4-6         Emulsify small amounts of oil in water as the major portion.
7 - 12     Cleaning action, dirt removal.
> 12       Special properties such as solubilizing and suspending.

In some formulations it is desirable to include more than one surfactant, for instance in laundry applications where dirt and oil have to be removed. A surfactant with 1 - 3 moles E.O will remove oils in fabrics, while a surfactant with 7 - 12 moles E.O will aid in the removal of dirt and particulate matter.

HLB TO FUNCTION

The Hydrophilic/Lipophilic balance is a more precise measure of a surfactant's function.

HLB VALUE FUNCTION
3 - 6        Water in oil emulsifier
7 - 9        Wetting Agent
8 - 15      Oil in water emulsifier
12 - 15    Detergency
15-18      Solubilizer, hydrotrope


HLB VALUES OF SURFACTANTS


PRODUCT                  VALUE
                                     0
TIGERFAX PE61 5
TIGERFAX OCA2 TIGERFAX LAE3
TIGERFAX NPE3

TIGERFAX PE62 TIGERFAX NPE4 10
TIGERFAX OF6
TIGERFAX OCA6 TIGERFAX TA10
TIGERFAX NPE12
TIGERFAX NPE13 15
TIGER FAX LAE8
TIGERFAX NPE20 TIGERFAX CDE
TIGERFAX SA15 20
TIGERFAX TA30 25
TIGERFAX PE68 30
35
SLES70, TIGERFAX AOS 40




Surfactants can be blended to produce intermediate values.

CLOUD POINT
Surfactants must remain in solution to perform their role Unlike salts which dissolve more readily in hot water, nonionic surfactant solubility has a temperature limit called the cloud point. This is the temperature at which a surfactant drops out of solution causing the solution to become turbid. Surfactant activity and surfactant performance are usually greatest just below the cloud point. Hence if you are formulating say a textile scouring agent to be used in hot water at about 75 degrees C. then a surfactant with a cloud point of something around 70-73 Degrees would be suitable. An important exception to this rule is in the area of defoaming.

FOAM REQUIREMENTS
In some applications foam is undesirable. At temperatures above a surfactants Cloud Point the minute droplets of precipitated surfactant can act as a "bubble breaker". Hence in textile dying and auto dishwashing applications where foaming is undesirable a surfactant such as TIGERFAX PE62 which is soluble in cold water but precipitates out in hot water has interesting effects. Chlorine and Propylene Oxide capped nonionic surfactants such as TIGERFAX 164 find application in this area.

SURFACTANT DESCRIPTIONS
Generally, linear carbon chains (primary alcohols) biodegrade faster than branched carbon chains or alkylphenols.

Primary Alcohol Ethoxylates A non-ionic surfactant in which the ethylene oxide chain is attached to a primary alcohol.

Octyl Phenol Ethoxylate. A non-ionic surfactant produced by the addition of ethylene oxide to Octyl phenol.

Nonyl Phenol Ethoxylates. A non-ionic surfactant produced by the addition of ethylene oxide to Nonyl phenol.

EO/PO Non-ionics. Specialty non-ionic surfactants containing ethylene oxide and propylene oxide units. These are also produced as block or random co-polymers and are generally surfactants with low foam properties for use in rinse aides and automatic dishwashing products.

Specialty Surfactants. Ethylene oxide can be added to a variety of alcohols, amines and fatty acids In order to produce products with special properties such as dye levelling, dispersing and wetting. Table of Desirable Properties vs Ionic Nature

Desired           Anionic         Non-ionic      Cationic        Amphoteric
Property
Foam              Best            Good           Poor            Better
Detergency        Better          Good           Fair            Good
Mildness          Variable        Good           Poor            Best


NONIONIC SURFACTANTS

ALCOHOL ETHOXYLATES AND ALKYL PHENOL ETHOXYLATES.

These are produced In various EO/hydrophobe ratios to provide a range of detergent and emulsification properties. The lower EO range products are suited for oily soil removal. The higher E.O products are better for wetting and suspending of solid particles. Products with 7-12 moles EO are suited for liquid and powdered heavy duty detergents. They are low foaming and work well in hard water at low temperatures. Although there are seven major types of non-ionic surfactants, these two types represent the majority of the market.

      LINEAR ALCOHOL ETHOXYLATES.

These surfactants are ethoxylated straight chain alcohols which may be derived from coco or palm based oils as well as synthetic Zeigler and oxo-alcohols.

      ALKYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES


These surfactants come in various chain lengths and are the workhorses of the woolscouring industry. They are excellent cleaning agents for grease and oil.

FATTY AMINE OXIDES
These surfactants produce rich stable foams and good grease cutting features and are components of hand dishwashing liquids, cleansers and other products where high foam is acceptable. They are also used in chlorine/bleach type products where normal surfactants are not acceptable.


ALKANOLAMIDES. Commonly used foam stabilising and viscosity enhancing surfactants. Heavily used in dishwashing liquids, shampoos and other personal care products. Alkanolamides are based mainly on coconut oil, the most common being Coconut Diethanolamide (TIGERFAX CDE).

EO/PO BLOCK COPOLYMERS .
These are effective over a wide temperature and pH range. They form strong gels and thick viscous solutions. They are also used as low foaming wetting agents in agricultural applications.


ALKYL AMINE ETHOXYLATES.

These products have interesting end uses such as levelling agents for Acid Dyes where they compete with the dye for the reactive sites on wool fibres resulting in slower and more even uptake of the dye. They also have the ability to adsorb onto the surface of metals and prevent corrosion, hence they are used in metal treatment. TIGERFAX TA and SA series surfactants are Amine Ethoxylates.



TIGERCOL LUBRICANTS


Because of their unique properties these products are given their own special section.

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-O-((E.O)n+(P.O)m)

Natural lubricants such as petroleum oils, animal and vegetable oils, etc. perform satisfactory services in most industrial applications, but have some limitations in the practical use under certain operating conditions. That is why a variety of synthetic lubricants have been developed in the recent years to meet the specific requirements.

TIGERCOL H and TIGERCOL L series alkoxylates are interesting and versatile products among such synthetic lubricants. They are composed of several types of poly-oxyalkylene glycols, and produced through polymerisation of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide combined, utilising a new type of reacting initiator.

TIGERCOL L series are all oil soluble polyoxypropylene glycol mono-alkyl ethers; TIGERCOL H series adducts are all water soluble poly-(oxyethylene oxypropylene) glycol monoalkylethers. In each of these series are included many products with different molecular weights from several hundreds to several ten thousands as listed below. because of the excellent physical and chemical characteristics TIGERCOL Lubricants exhibit outstanding performances in broad industrial application fields.

                 Grades of TIGERCOL LUBRICANTS
 -----------------------------------------------------------
 	TIGERCOL L SERIES		TIGERCOL H SERIES
 -----------------------------------------------------------
 	TIGERCOL L-65			TIGERCOL H-55
 	TIGERCOL L-285			TIGERCOL H-100
 	TIGERCOL L-385			TIGERCOL H-260
 	TIGERCOL L-625			TIGERCOL H-400
 	TIGERCOL L-1715			TIGERCOL H-660
 	TIGERCOL L-300X			TIGERCOL H-2000
 	TIGERCOL L-650X			TIGERCOL H-5100
 -----------------------------------------------------------

Each product in the TIGERCOL H and L series is given the number code and letter symbols which indicate some physical and chemical properties. "L" stands for "oil-soluble". "H" stands for "water soluble". The number following these letter symbols indicates the viscosity in Saybolt Universal Seconds at 100F (37.8C) For example, L-65 has a viscosity of 65 S.U.S. at 100F.

Because TIGERCOL Lubricants are wax free they do not contain nor require pour point depressants. Some of the products have pour points below -50C making them suitable for use in hydraulic fluids to operate in freezing conditions.

The products suffixed with the letter symbol "X" possesses an excellent heat resistance.

TIGERCOL Lubricants exhibit the special desirable property that their viscosities are much more temperature stable than those of vegetable or mineral oils. This enables them to find wide applications in areas as diverse as high temperature lubrications- in combustion engines and hydraulic fluid application in low temperatures.

 	Applications for TIGERCOL Lubricants.
 	--------------------------------------------------------
 Tigercol L Series		Base material for conventional grease
 Tigercol H Series		compounded with lithium soap. Particularly
 				suitable for manufacture of high temperature
 				grease compounded with graphite or
 				molybdenum sulphide if extremely high
 				thermal resistance is required. Leaves no residues
 				after combustion and imparts no swelling or
 				shrinking effect to natural or synthetic rubber.
  
 Tigercol H-260			Raw material for brake fluid. Water soluble base
 	  H-400 		polymers in low-medium viscosity range.
 	  H-660	
  
 Tigercol H Series		Bases for water soluble quenching fluids.
 				To be diluted to a few % concentration for
 				application. It helps vary the speed of cooling
 				the materials to be hardened.
  
 Tigercol L,H Series		Various metalworking fluids including cutting
 TIGERFAX PE64/68		oils, grinding oils, drawing oils and rolling oils.
  
Specifications on the TIGERCOL Lubricants range are readily available from Tiger Chemical Company.




CATIONIC SURFACTANTS

QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS

These Cationic surfactants are used less for their wetting abilities than for their pronounced germicidal properties and their ability to adsorb onto the surface of hair, skin and fabrics. They are used in the formulation of disinfectant cleaners. swimming pool biocides and fabric softeners.

Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride
		      			   +CH3   -
				CH3-(CH2)n-N-CH3 Cl
				           CH3


IMIDAZOLINES These are made from fatty acids and polyamines. They are used in textile processing and corrosion inhibition in oil fields.

BETAINES Made from dimethyl fatty amine and chloracetic acid, these materials are used in personal care products such as shampoos and liquid soaps, where they contribute mildness, foam and viscosity.

ANIONIC SURFACTANTS


LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULPHONlC ACID
Most commonly known as LABS Acid, this product is used in the manufacture of household detergents and laundry products. it is commonly used in mixed surfactant systems with alcohol ethoxylates or Alpha Olefin Sulphonates to bring better cleaning performance.

SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULPHATE
Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate (SLES) and is usually sold as a 70% or 25% product. They are most commonly incorporated in cleaning formulations for their hydrotropic properties. It is also widely used in shampoos because of its high foaming characteristics.

  ALPHA OLEFIN SULPHONATES
These are most commonly the sodium salts of C14 - C18 Alpha Olefin sulphonate. The consumption of AOS is rising steadily throughout the world. Their excellent solubility in water permits their use in highly concentrated products. TIGERFAX AOS should be incorporated into scouring agents, laundry formulations, and hard surface cleaners. They are fully biodegradable and work synergistically with LABS Acid to improve the performance of cleaning products. For example, Instead of formulating a product containing 10% LABS the formula would contain 6% LABS and 2% AOS. TIGERFAX AOS is available in liquid and powder form. They are generally made from renewable sources like vegetable oils. Alpha Olefin Sulphonates can be formulated into virtually all kinds of cleaning preparations. They also have the added advantage of being good hydrotropes, so can replace Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate (SLES) and Sodium Xylene Sulphonate (SXS) in formulations.

  PHOSPHATE ESTERS
Phosphate Esters such as TIGERFAX 60R and TIGERFAX 61R offer the unique combination of biodegradability, exceptional stability in alkali, and outstanding compatibility in concentrated electrolyte solutions. TIGERFAX 60R does not discolour when compounded in formulations with anhydrous caustic soda, silicates, or other alkaline builders. They are excellent hydrotropes, have outstanding metal cleaning efficiency and have the ability to make aromatic solvents such as Xylene actually dissolve in water making it possible to formulate water-based degreasers that have the performance of solvents based cleaners.  

SODIUM SULPHOSUCCINATES
The most common is Sodium Dioctyl Sulphosuccinate. These products are excellent wetting agents and therefore find their way into scouring and dispersing formulations in the textile industry and as dewatering agents in the mining industry. TIGERFAX DOSS is a 70% active product. It is used extensively in wood stains to help dyes penetrate timber.

Sodium Dioctyl Sulphosuccinate





HYDROTROPES

An understanding of Hydrotropes is crucial to the formulation of cleaning products. These are compounds that enhance the solubility of other organics in water. They are usually incorporated into a formulation at approximately 3 - 5%. Without hydrotropes It would be impossible to incorporate sufficient quantities of surfactants, phosphates and solvents into detergent systems. The most common type is Sodium Xylene Sulphonate (SXS), which is generally sold as pellets or as a 40% solution in water. It however has little cleaning efficiency and is best substituted with hydrotropes which will contribute to the cleaning efficiency of the formulation.

Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate (SLES), TIGERFAX AOS and TIGERFAX 60R are all excellent hydrotropes, and are often used in products such as laundry detergents hard surface cleaners and truck washes. Without Hydrotropes this formulation would not be shelf stable and would separate out.
Below is a formulation for truck wash with an explanation of why each raw material is included.



Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate           4.0%   Suspends dirt and particulate matter in
(STPP)                                     solution. Acts as a builder by increasing
		                           the detergency of the product. 
TIGERFAX CDE 5.0% Adds viscosity and assists with the emulsification of fats and oils. TIGERFAX AOS 4.0% Hydrotrope which keeps the ingredients (or SLES 70%) in solution at the same time as assisting the cleaning action. TIGERFAX LA8 4.0% Good detergency and wetting.
BUTYL GLYCOL ETHER 2.0% Attaches to the surface of oil and grease, helping other ingredients to emulsify these products.
Water, dye 81.0%
100.0%


This product can be used in high pressure cleaning systems with hot or cold water. For steam cleaning systems, a surfactant with a higher cloud point can be used.

When formulating with a Hydrotrope it is best to use a Hydrotrope that will contribute to the overall desired effect of the formulation. For example, where cleaning action is required TIGERFAX AOS should be used as it has excellent detergency as well as hydrotropic activity.

BUILDERS
The addition of phosphates such as Sodium Tripolyphosphate greatly increases the detergency of a surfactant. Hence they are incorporated into many kinds of cleaning systems.

Sodium Hexametaphosphate                        BEST
Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate (TKPP)
Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP)
Sodium Carbonate (Soda Ash)                    WORST


Phosphate builders also have the added effect of sequestering Calcium and Magnesium from hard water. Cellulosic builders such as Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) also stop dirt from redepositing back on fabrics. Laundry powders and liquids usually contain both of these builders.


TYPICAL USES FOR SURFACTANTS

TIGERFAX NPE series Ethoxylated Nonyl Phenols Emulsifying
Wetting
Cleaning
Dispersing
TIGERFAX OPE Series Ethoxylated Octyl Phenols emulsifying
Wetting
solubilizing
Penetrating
TIGERFAX LAE Series Ethoxylated Lauryl Alcohols Wetting
Emulsifying
Cleaning
Dyeing auxiliaries
TIGERFAX OCA Series Ethoxylated Oleyl Cetyl Dyeing
auxiliaries Alcohol
Oil emulsification
TIGERFAX COE Series Ethoxylated Castor Oil Lubrication
Dye Levelling
TIGERFAX OF Series Ethoxylated Oleic Acid Mold releasing
Emulsifying
Dispersing
TIGERFAX TA Series Ethoxylated Tallow Amine Dyeing auxiliaries
TIGERFAX PE Series EO/PE Block Copolymers Defoaming
Emulsifying
TIGERFAX SA Series Ethoxylated Soya Amine Textile Dyeing
LABS ACID Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Detergents/Cleaning
TIGERFAX CDE Coconut Diethanolamide Detergent foaming
Detergent thickening
TIGERFAX AOS Sodium Alpha Olefin Detergents,
Hydrotropic
Sulphonate
Scouring Agents

FORMULARY

    It is best to consult Tiger Chemicals before making the following products as there are often hidden tricks or special procedures involved.
  
  
 1. DISINFECTANT
  
  	TIGERFAX LA8         			2.3%
        	Quat 50               		1.6%
       	(Quaternary Ammonium Compound)
        	Ethanol                         5.0%
        	Water				91.1%
                                         	100.0%
  
  
Disinfectants are often heavily perfumed with pine or citrus. It is suggested that the product be diluted 1:20 in water for mopping bathrooms etc.
  
  
 2. DISHWASHING DETERGENTS
  
These can be made by using a detergent concentrate like "DETCON" or making from scratch with the individual components.
  
 	DETCON 6				6.0%
        	Water				94.0%
                                        	100.00%
  
This formula produces a cheap, good quality detergent for household use. Its performance can be greatly improved by adding 1% TIGERFAX LA8.
  
  
 b.     LABS Acid                     		5.67%
        Caustic Soda                     	0.72%
        TIGER FAX CDE                   	3.50%
        TIGERFAX LA8                   		1.17%
        Water					88.94%
                                       		100.00%
  
This product can be thickened by the addition of 0.5% salt. The salt should always be added as a 50% solution, and added slowly.
  
 3. TRUCKWASH.
         STPP                          			4.00%
         (Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate)
         BUTYL GLYCOL                  			2.00%
         TIGERFAX CDE                   		5.00%
         TIGERFAX AOS                   		4.00%
         TIGERFAX LA8                  	 		4.00%
         Water						81.00%
                                         		100.00%
  
  
  
  
  
  
 4. ALL PURPOSE CLEANER
  
        TIGERFAX AOS                   		7.10%
        TIGERFAX CDE                   		3.90%
        STPP                          		3.90%
        (Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate)
        TIGERFAX NPE9                  		1.00%
        SLES 70                         	2.00%
        (Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate)
        Ammonia 880                     	0.80%
        Water & dye				81.30%
                                        	100.00%
Notes Use either TIGERFAX AOS or LABS Acid with Caustic Soda. SXS can be used in place of SLES 70. Use this formula diluted 1:20 with water, for cleaning floors and built up areas.
  
  
 5. WINDOW CLEANER
  
       	BUTYL GLYCOL					3.00%
 	Ammonia 880					0.25%
 	TIGERFAX NPE9					0.05%
 	Water						96.70% 		
 							100.00%
  
This type of product is usually applied to the window with a spray pack and wiped off. It has proven to be one of our most popular formulations.
  
  
 6. HARD SURFACE CLEANER
  
        T.K.P.P.                         			2.0%
        (Tetra Potassium Pyro Phosphate)
        BUTYL GLYCOL                 				5.0%
        TIGERFAX LA8                   				1.0%
        Water                          				92.0%
                                        			100.0%
  
This is a spray and wipe type product, for wiping down benches, walls, cupboards, etc. TKPP can be replaced with different phosphates including STPP, TSP and Calgon T.
  
  



  
 7. HEAVY DUTY FLOOR CLEANER
  
  		TIGERFAX NPE10                			2.0%
        		LABS Acid                    		1.5%
        		TIGERFAX CDE                  		4.0%
        		TIGERFAX AOS                 		4.0%*
        		BUTYL GLYCOL                 		5.0%
        		STPP                       		3.0%
        		(Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate)
        		Caustic Soda                     	2.0%
        		Water                          		78.5%
                                       				100.0%
  
*SLES 70 or Sodium Xylene Sulphonate can be used instead of TIGERFAX AOS. This product can be diluted 1:20 and can be ammoniated if desired. This product is ideal for sales to butcher shops, fish and chip shops and contract cleaners.
  
  
 8. ALKALINE DEGREASER

 		TIGERFAX AOS					3.00%
 		TIGERFAX NPE9					2.00%
 		LABS Acid					1.20%
 		BUTYL GLYCOL					4.00%
 		Caustic Soda					0.50%
 		Sodium Metasilicate Pentahydrate.		3.00%
 		T.K.P.P.					6.00%
 		(Tetra Potassium Pyro Phosphate)
  		Water						80.30%
 								100.00%
This product can be diluted 1:1 with water for soaking engine parts. It is also an excellent garage floor cleaner diluted 1:10 with water. Water based degreasers do not work nearly as well as solvent based products.
  
  
 9. SOLVENT DEGREASER
  
                  Turps or White Spirit              	90.00%
                  TIGERFAX NPE4                 	5.00%
                  TIGERFAX CDE				5.00%
                                                 	100.00%
This product can be painted on or used as a soak tank cleaner. The TIGERFAX surfactants help break up the oil and dirt when the product is rinsed off with water.
  
  
  
  
 10. VINYL CLEANER
  
                  STPP                         		2.00%
                  (Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate)
                  TIGERFAX OCA2                 	0.30%
                  BUTYL DI-GLYCOL               	6.00%
                  BUTYL GLYCOL                  	6.00%
                  SILICONE 350 cps Fluid               	0.20%
                  TIGERFAX LA8                   	0.50%
                  TIGERFAX AOS                  	4.00%*
                  Water					81.00%
                                                 	100.00%
*SLES 70 or Sodium Xylene sulphonate can be substituted for TIGERFAX AOS.
  
  
  
 11. DISINFECTANT CLEANER
  
 		S.T.P.P						3.00%
 		(Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate)
 		T.K.P.P.					3.00%
 		(Tetra Potassium Pyro Phosphate)	
 		BUTYL GLYCOL					5.00%
 		TIGERFAX LA8					5.00%
 		Quat 50						5.00%
 		Water, Dye, Perfume				79.00%
 								100.00%
  
This product should be diluted 1:20 before use. It is suitable for sale to hospitals, contact cleaners and similar outlets.
  
  
  
 12. HAND CLEANER
  
 		Part A:	White Spirit or Turps           	39.00%%
                  		Oleic Acid			7.60%
  
         		Part B: TRIETHANOLAMINE           	3.60%
                 		TIGERFAX NPE9                 	5.00%
                  		PROPYLENE GLYCOL          	2.50%
                 		Glycerine                       1.00%
                  		Water				41.30%
                                                		100.00%
  
         TIGERLAN (Lanolin) can be added to Part A If desired.
  
         Heat Part B to 70C and add Part A with agitation.
  
  
 	
  
  
 13. CLEAR BUILT LAUNDRY LIQUID
  
        	S.T.P.P.                        	 	6.00%
        	(Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate)
        	TRIETHANOLAMINE              			2.00%
        	TIGERFAX AOS                 			10.00%
 	TIGERFAX LA8                  				7.00%
 	TIGERFAX LAE12                 				3.00%
        	SLES 70                        			2.50%
        	(Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate)
        	Formalin                        		0.10%*
        	E.D.T.A.                         		0.20%^
        	Dye & Perfume
        	Water						68.60%
                                        			100.00%
  
Notes:. *Formalin acts as a preservative. ^EDTA softens water.
  
  
 14. RINSE AID FOR AUTOMATIC DISH WASHING MACHINES.
  
        	TIGERFAX 164                  	35.00%
        	Dye & Perfume
        	Water				65.00%
                                       		100.00%
  
  
  
 15. FURNITURE POLISH
  
        	SILICONE 350 cps.                	2.50%
        	Paraffin Wax                    	2.00%
        	Bees Wax                       		2.00%
        	White Spirit                     	20.00%
        	TIGERFAX TDA9                  		2.20%
        	TIGERFAX LAE3                   	1.80%
        	Water					69.50%
                                       			100.00%
  
 16. FLOOR WAX STRIPPER
  
        	TIGERFAX LA8                 	10.00%
        	BUTYL GLYCOL                	40.00%
        	TRIETHANOLAMINE            	10.00%
        	Water				40.00%
                                      		100.00%
  
  
  

 17. AUTOMATIC DISHWASHER DETERGENT
        	Caustic Potash                  15.00%
        	(Potassium Hydroxide)
        	S.T.P.P.                        5.00%
        	(Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate)
        	TIGERFAX 164                  	1.50%
        	Water				79.00%
                                    		100.00%
  
This product is usually chlorinated with Sodium Hypochlorite solution. This is usually added just before the goods are sold as the chlorine decomposes within a few weeks. About 0.5 litre of commercial sodium hypochlorite is sufficient to add to each 25 litre pail.. Be careful when adding as the reaction is strongly exothermlc.
  
 18. TOILET BOWL CLEANER
  
        	TIGERFAX AOS                 		3.00%
       		(or LABS Acid)
        	Hydrochloric acid                 	20.00%
        	DOWFAX 2A1                 	 	3.00%
        	Water                         		74.00%
 							100.00%
  
DOWFAX 2A1 is a surfactant produced by DOW Chemicals USA and is imported by Tiger Chemical Company. DOWFAX 2A1 is extremely acid and caustic stable and finds its way into a variety of acid and alkaline cleaners.
  
  
 19. HAIR SHAMPOO
  
 		TIGERFAX AOS                  	37.00%
               	SLES 70                         7.00%
               	(Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate)
               	TIGERFAX CDE                   	2.00%
               	Salt                            1.00%
              	Water				73.00%
                                                100.00%		
  
  
 20. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY TRUCKWASH
  
 		TIGERFAX AOS                  	11.00%
               	TIGERFAX LA8                   	4.00%
               	TIGERFAX CDE                   	5.00%
            		SLES70%			5.00%
             		BUTYL GLYCOL            2.00%
              	Water                          	73.00%
                                                100.00%
This product is totally biodegradable whereas the truckwash in formula 3 is not termed biodegradable because it contains LABS Acid.
  
  
  
 21. ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISHWASHING LIQUID
  
                  	TIGERFAX AOS                  	22.00%
                  	SLES 70                        	15.00%
                  	(Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulphate)
                  	TIGERFAX CDE                   	2.00%
                  	TIGERFAX LA8                  	10.00%
                  	Water, dye & perfume		51.00%
                                                  	100.00%
  
This product is highly concentrated and can be diluted considerably while still maintaining its effectiveness. TIGERFAX AOS is significantly milder on the skin than LABS Acid. While being an effective surfactant for cleaning, TIGERFAX AOS is also an excellent hydrotrope which is able to hold a system of cleaning agents such as phosphates, glycol ethers and non-ionic surfactants in solution together.
  
 22. VINYL & DASHBOARD REJUVENATOR
  
 		TIGERSlL 929                    	9.00%
         		TIGERSIL 346                   	13.00%
         		TIGERFAX NPE9                  	1.00%
         		C.M.C.                          0.06%
         		(Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, eg C-941)
        		BUTYL GLYCOL             	3.00%
         		Water				73.94%
                                        		100.00%
  
 Notes:
 TIGERSIL 929 is an amine functional silicone.
 TIGERSIL 346 is a 60% silicone emulsion.
  
 23. (a)	TYRE GLOSS 
        	SILICONE 1000 cps.               		5.00%
        	White Spirit                     		95.00%
                                      				100.00%
  
 23. (b) 	TYRE GLOSS 
  
 	Tigersil 346				10%
 	Propylene Glycol			10%
 	Water					80%
 						----------
 						100.00% 

24. GENERAL PURPOSE CLEANER   TIGERFAX LA8 12.00% T.K.P.P 2.00% (Tetra Potassium Pyro Phosphate) or S.T.P.P. (Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate) Sodium Metasilicate Pentahydrate 3.00% TIGERFAX AOS 12.00% HEXYLENE GLYCOL 8.00% Water 63.00% 100.00%  
This is a high performance product for use on built up areas. The addition of 2.0% BUTYL GLYCOL or BUTYL DI-GLYCOL will help its action on grease and oil.
  
  
  
 25. VINYL & RUBBER DRESSING
  
 	Tigersil 346			30.0%
 	Tigersil 929			1.5%
 	TIGERFAX OPE10			1.0%
 	Water				67.5%
 					---------
 					100.0%
  
 26. PAINT STRIPPER
  
 	TIGERFAX TDA7			2.5%
 	Methoxy Propanol		7.0%
 	Methylene Chloride		70.0%
 	Perchlorethylene		12.0%
 	Ethanol				6.0%
 	Paraffin Wax			1.5%
 	Methyl Cellulose		1.0%
 					----------
 					100%
  
 25. ALL PURPOSE CLEANER
  
 	TIGERFAX 60R			5.0%
 	LABS Acid			5.0%
 	Sodium Hydroxide		1.3%
 	TIGERFAX CDE			1.0%
 	STPP				10.0%
 	Water				77.7%
 					---------
 					100.0%
  
 26. GENERAL PURPOSE CAR & BOAT POLISH
  
 	Part A
 	Silicone 350Cps Fluid		2.50%
 	Silicone 12,500Cps Fluid	1.00%
 	Hoechst Wax E			1.50%
 	Oleic Acid			1.50%
 	White Spirit			13.50%
  
 	Part B		
 	Water				75.05%
 	Carbopol 934			0.25%
 	Morpholine			1.60%
 	Preservative			0.10%
  
 	Part C
 	Kaopolite SF			8.00%
  
Add parts A and B at about 90C with stirring. When uniform, add part C. Let cool and package. various grades of chalk/(talc) can be substituted for the Kaopolite.
  
  
  
 27. LEVELLING AGENT FOR TEXTILE DYEING
  
 	TIGERFAX TA-10			19.0%
 	Acetic Acid			1.0%
 	Water				80%
 					---------
 					100%
  
This formula is an excellent leveling agent for Acid dyes on wool and other textiles. Levelling agents ensure the dyes are adsorbed evenly onto the textile fibres. This property is due the Cationic nature of the TIGERFAX TA-10 in acid solution acting as an antagonist competing for the reactive sites on the substrate.
  
 28. SCOURING AGENT FOR TEXTILES
  
 	TIGERFAX NPE8				70%
 	TIGERFAX NPE5				20%
 	TIGERFAX NPE40				10%
 						-------
 						100%
  
This composition is suitable for scouring woven textiles prior to bleaching and/or dyeing. The NPE5/NPE8 mixture is a good combination for removing grease and dirt picked up during the weaving process. The NPE40 raises the cloud point ensuring good performance in hot water.
  
 29 ALGAE & MOULD REMOVER
  
 	Sodium Percarbonate			70%
 	Sodium Sulphate				25%
 	AOS Powder				5%		
 						-------
 						100%





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